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ES 231: Environmental Analysis

Your Proposal

Your proposal must include and describe

  • Analyte of interest
  • Matrix to be analyzed
  • Experimental protocol – are you comparing two sample prep techniques or two analysis techniques?  What is your hypothesis?
  • Experimental details
    • all reagents, supplies, equipment, instrumentation needed
    • number of replicates for statistical analysis
    • sampling of matrix & sample size
    • sample preparation (Do you have to grind sample?  Extract analyte?)
    • detailed procedure (bulleted form ok)
    • standard preparation, calibration
  • Reference value for comparison (so you know what concentration to expect)
  • References (using standard guidelines, MLA, ACS, etc.)

ACS Citation Style

In-text citations

For ACS Style you use superscript numbers within or after cited information

Example: Fluoridated water, as well as various fluoride products such as toothpaste, provide fluoride ions necessary for remineralization.²

The number you use will correspond to the citation you are referring to.


Reference List

(Examples from the Williams College Library)


  • Format: Last Name, First Initial. Title: Subtitle, edition; Publisher: Location, Year.
  • Example: Chang, R. General Chemistry: The Essential Concepts, 3rd ed.; McGraw-Hill: Boston, 2003.


  • Print: Author 1; Author 2; Author 3;. Title of Article. Journal Abbreviation YearVolume, Inclusive Pagination. 
    • ExampleEvans, D. A.; Fitch, D. M.; Smith, T. E.; Cee, V. J. Application of Complex Aldol Reactions to the Total Synthesis of Phorboxazole B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 10033-10046.
  • Electronic: Author 1; Author 2; Author 3;. Title of Article. Journal Abbreviation [Online] Year, Issue, Inclusive Pagination. Complete URL (accessed Date).
    • ExamplePeacock-Lopez, E. Exact Solutions of the Quantum Double Square-Well Potential. Chem. Ed. [Online] 2007, 11, 383-393 (accessed Aug 23, 2007).


  • Format: Author, X (if any). Title of Site. URL (accessed Month Day, Year), other identifying information (if any).
  • Example: National Library of Medicine. Environmental Health and Toxicology: Specialized Information Services. (accessed Aug 23, 2004).

For more information, please visit the ACS Website, download the references chapter of the ACS Style Guide, or check out this guide by the Williams College Libraries.

Prefer paper? Come to the library, where we have two copies of the ACS style guide on reserve behind the Help Desk.