Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Westminster College Logo

Library DIY: Citing Sources

Chicago Style

First, be sure that you are using the most current Chicago Style guide—Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS), 17th edition, which was released in 2017.

You can directly access the Chicago Manual of Style Online or you can use the Purdue OWL Chicago Guide, which is regularly updated.

Chicago style uses either the author-date or notes-bibliography methods for in-text citation. This means you have the choice to either use parenthetical citations with the last name of the author(s) and the year of publication or footnotes. You cannot use both in the same paper/project - be sure you know which method your professor wants you to use! 

 

Author-date (in-text):

Unless you are referencing an idea or an entire work, include the page number where you found the quote/information you are using. Chicago style does not use a comma to separate the author and date but does use a comma to separate the date and page number.  Unlike APA, Chicago style does not use a "p." to indicate page.

Like this: She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones 1998, 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

 

In-text Citations with Multiple Authors:

If a work has two authors, list both in the order they are listed on the source. Use the word "and" between authors:(Higgledy and Biggledy 1942, 75)

If a work has four or more authors, list the first four authors' names, separated by commas, and then "et al": (Einney, Meeny, Miney and Mo 2017, 9–10)

 

Notes-Bibliography (footnotes):

When using the Note-Bibliography method, footnotes are used in place of parenthetical citations.  A shortened or amended version of the full bibliographic citation is used in the footnote.

For example, a single-author book would have the following Note-Bibliography combination:

N: First name Last name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

B: Last name, First name. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Both the Chicago Manual of Style Online and the Purdue OWL Chicago Guide provide specific examples by type of source. 

The basic formats include:

Book

N: First name Last name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

B: Last name, First name. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Article

N: First name Last name, “Title of article,” Title of Journal Vol, no (publication date): Page.

B: Last name, First name. “Title of article,” Title of Journal Vol, no (publication date): Full page range.

How to Add Footnotes

How to add a footnote in Google Docs/Drive:

Click Insert from the top menu bar and then select Footnote (Shortcut Key: Ctrl + Alt + F)

 

Google doc Insert > Footnote

 

How to add a footnote in Microsoft Word

Click References from the top menu bar and click Insert Footnote (Shortcut Key: Ctrl + Alt + F)

 

References > Insert Footnote

 

How to add a footnote in Apple Pages

Click Insert from the top toolbar and choose Footnote.

Apple pages Insert > Footnotes